In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic(官僚主义的) management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, Nell-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human – relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.
The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interesting life. They live an die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.
Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence. From the moment on they are tested again and again – by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow – competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.
Am I suggesting that we should return to the preidustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise “ capitalism? Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system form a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities – those of all love and of reason – are the aims of social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.
1. By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery “ the author intends to deliver the idea that man is ____.
A. a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible
B. working in complete harmony with the rest of the society
C. an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society
D. a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly
2. The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ____.
A. they are likely to lose their hobs
B. they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life
C. they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence
D. they are deprived of their individuality and independence
Ever since Herodotus2, the ancient Greek historianand traveler, first described Egypt as“the gift of theNile3”, she has been capturing the imagination of allwho visit her.
The awe -inspiring monuments, left by thePharaohs, Greeks and Romans as well as by the earlyChristians and Muslims, attract thousands of visitorsevery year — but the pyramids, temples, tombs, monasteries and mosques are just part of thiscountry’s fascination.
Modern Egypt —where mud-brick villages stand beside Pharaonic ruins surrounded by toweringsteel, stone and glass buildings — is at the cultural crossroads of East and West, ancient andmodern. While TV antennae decorate rooftops everywhere, from the crowded apartmentblocks of Cairo to the mud homes of farming villages and the goatskin tents of the Bedouins4,the fellahin throughout the Nile’s fertile valley still tend their fields with the archaic tools oftheir ancestors.
In the gargantuan5city of Cairo the sound of the muezzin6 summoning the faithful to prayercompetes with the pop music of ghetto blasters7 and the screech of car horns. Andeverywhere there are people : swathed in long flowing robes or western-style clothes, hangingfrom buses, weaving through an obstacle course of animals and exhaust-spewing traffic orspilling from hivelike buildings.
Spectacular edifices aside, the attraction of this country lies in its incredible natural beauty andin the overwhelming hospitality of the Egyptian people .
Through everything the Nile River flows serene and majestic, the lifeblood of Egypt as it hasbeen since the beginning of history.
Ⅰ. Give the synonyms to the following words:
1. archaic 2. swathe 3. incredible 4. screech 5. serene 6. gargantuan
Ⅱ. Translate the sentences into English with the words in parenthe ses :
1. 她的精彩表演使观众为之神往。( capture )
2. 她初见长城时, 敬畏之感油然而生。( awe)
3. 他被召进宫里。( summon)
4. 消除紧张的方法在于学会放松。( lie )
Ⅰ. 1. ancient / antique 2. wrap / clothe 3.unbelievable / inconceivable 4. shriek / scream 5.quiet / tranquil / peaceful 6. giant / huge /tremendous
Ⅱ. 1. Her brilliant performance captured theaudience’s imagination. 2. Her first view of the GreatWall filled her with awe. 3. He was summoned to thepalace. 4. The cure for stress lies in learning to relax.
自古希腊历史学家、旅行家希罗多德首次将埃及描述为“ 尼罗河的礼物”以来, 埃及就 一直让所有参观过此地的人为之神往。
法老们、希腊人、罗马人以及早期基督徒和穆斯林们遗留下来的历史遗迹使人产生敬 畏之心, 每年都吸引了成千上万的参观者— 金字塔、庙宇、陵墓、修道院和清真寺, 它们只 是这个国家令人着迷的事物中的一部分。
现代埃及泥砖搭建的村庄和法老王宫的废墟咫尺而立, 它们又被由钢铁、石块和 玻璃建成的高耸的大厦所包围正处在东西文化和古今文明的交叉口上。无论是开罗 拥挤的公寓楼, 还是农场村庄的泥土房和贝都因人山羊皮搭成的帐篷, 这些屋顶上如今都 架着电视天线, 与此同时, 肥沃的尼罗河流域的农民们还依旧用先祖们曾使用的原始工具 照料着耕地。
在开罗这个大城市, 宣礼员召唤忠实信徒做祷告的声音与黑人音盒里放出来的流行音 乐及汽车喇叭的刺耳啸鸣交相呼应。到处都是人: 裹着飘拂长袍的或穿着西式服装的, 他 们有的悬吊在公交车外面, 有的在夹杂着家畜和排着废气的车辆的路上迂回穿行, 还有的 从蜂窝式的楼群里一涌而出。
除了富丽豪华的摩天大厦之外, 这个国家吸引人的地方还在于她那壮美的自然风光和 埃及人民极度热情好客的风俗。
尼罗河流过万物, 有史以来, 它就是那么静谧、高贵, 它是埃及的血脉。
3. From the passage we can conclude that real happiness of life belongs to those _____.
A. who are at the bottom of the society
B. who are higher up in their social status
C. who prove better than their fellow – competitors
D. who could dip far away from this competitive world
4. To solve the present social problems the author puts foruard a suggestion that we should ______.
A. resort to the production mode of our ancestors
B. offer higher wages to the workers and employees
C. enable man to fully develop his potentialities
D. take the fundamental realities for granted
5. The author’s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of ______.
A. approval B. dissatisfaction
C. suspicion D. susceptibility