Normally a student must attend a certain number oi" courses in order to graduate, and each course which he attends gives him a credit(学分)which he may count to- wards a degree. In many American universities the total work for a degree consists of thirty-six courses each lasting for one semester(学期). A typical course consists of three classes per week for fifteen weeks; while attending a university a student will probably attend four or five courses during each semester. Normally a student would expect to take four years attending two semesters each year. It is possible to spread the period of work for the degree over a longer period. It is also possible for a student to move between one university and another during his degree course, though this is not in fact done as a regular practice.
For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is recorded, andthe record is available for the student to show to prospective employers. All this impo- ses a constant pressure and strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs. Elections to positions in student organizations arouse much enthusiasm. The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually per- formed by students who advise the academic authorities. Any student who is thought to have broken the rules, for example, by cheating has to appear before a student court. With the enormous numbers of students, the operation of the system does in- volve a certain amount of activity. A student who has held one of these positions of au- thority is much respected and it will be of benefit to him later in his career.
Normally a student would at least attend classes each week.
The high point in railroad building came with the construction of the first trans- continental system. In 1862 Congress authorized two western railroad companies to build lines from Nebraska westward and from California eastward to a meeting point, so as to complete a transcontinental crossing linking the Atlantic seaboard with the Pa- cific. The Government helped the railroads generously with money and land. Actual work on this project began four years later. The Central Pacific Company, starting from California, used Chinese labor, while the unio Pacific employed crews of Irish labourers. The two groups worked at remarkable speed, each trying to cover a greater distance than the other. In 1869 they met at a place called Promontory in what is now the state of Utah. Many visitors came there for the great occasion. There were joyous celebrations all over the country, with parades and the ringing of church bells to honor the great achievement.
The construction of the transcontinental railroad took
A. 9 years
B. 7 years
C. 4 years
D. 3 years