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职称英语考试理工类a级完形填空模拟练习题4

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Avalanche and Its Safety

An avalanche is a sudden and rapid flow of snow,often mixed with air and water,down a mountainside,Avalanches are____1____ the biggest dangers in the mountains for both life and property.

All avalanches are caused by an over-burden of material,typically snowpack,that is too massive and unstable for the slope____2____ supports it,Determining the critical load,the amount of over-burden which is____3____ cause an avalanche,____4____ acomplex task involving the evaluation of a number of factors.

Terrain slopes flatter than25degrees or steeper than60degrees typically have a low ____5____ of avalanche,Snow does not____6____ significantly on steep slopes;also,snow does not ____7____ easily on flat slopes,Human-triggered avalanches have the greatest incidence when the snow‘s angle of rest1 is____8____ 35 and45 degrees;the critical angle,the angle at which the human incidence of avalanches is greatest,is38degrees,The rule of thumb2 is: A slope that is____9____ enough to hold snow but steep enough to ski has the potential to generate an avalanche,regardless of the angle,Additionally3,avalanche risk increases with ____10____;that is,the more a slope is disturbed by skiers,die more lijkely it is that an avalanche will occur.

Due to the complexity of the subject,winter travelling in the backcountry4 is never 100% safe,Good avalanche safety is a continuous____11____,,including route selection and examination of the snowpack,weather____12____ and human factors,Several well-known good habits can also____13____ the risk,If local authorities issue avalanche risk reports,they should be considered and all warnings should be paid ____14____ to,Never follow in the tracks of others without your own evaluations;snow conditions are almost certain to have changed since they were made,Observe the terrain and note obvious avalanche paths where plants are____15____ or damaged,Avoid traveling below others who might trigger an avalanche.

词汇:

avalanche / '?v?l?nt?,-lɑ?n? / n.雪崩

snowpack / 'sn??p?k / n.积雪场

terrain / te're?n / n.地形,地势

steep / sti?p / adj.险峻的,陆峭的

trigger / 'tr?g?(r) / v.引起,激发

incidence / '?ns?d?ns / n.发生(率)

ski / ski? / v.滑雪

complexity / k?m'pleks?t? / n.复杂性

注释:

1.angle of rest:这里指积雪保持静止的角度。

2.rule of thumb:指“a broadly accurate principle,based on experience or practice rather than theory”,即“通用法则,经验法则'

3.Additionally:是一个副词,用来引人新的事实或论点,意为“此外”。

4.backcountry:人烟稀少的地区

练习:

1,A among B of C to D in

2.A when B that C who D whose

3.A mostly B likely C clearly D surely

4.A are B will be C is D was

5.A weight B form C risk D work

6.A fall B flow C roll D gather

7.A fall B flow C roll D gather

8.A among B between C with D for

9.A thick B thin C flat D rocky

10.A use B time C snow D rain

11.A journey B trip C fact D process

12.A conditions B reports C forecast D event

13.A increase B reduce C improve D remove

14.A price B effort C attention D money

15.A missing B grown C big D fresh

答案与题解:

1.A 表“雪崩是山上可能发生的最大危险之一”的意思,因此应该选择among(在……之中)。

2.B 从该句的语法结构上来看,此处需要一个关系代词,代替slope,所以that是最佳选择。选项A、C、D均不符合语法。

3.B 选项A不合语法,C和D符合语法,但不符合常识:过度的雪的积压可能导致雪崩,而不是必定导致雪崩。所以,B是最佳答案。

4.C 该句的主语是Determining the critical load,从上下文来看应该使用一般现在时,所以C是正确答案。

5.C 要确定本题答案的一个有效的方法是排除法。a low weight/form work of avalanche都不合逻辑,只有a low risk of avalanche符合上下文的意思。下面的句子解释了low risk of avalanche的道理,更证实了选risk是正确的。

6.D 第6题和第7题可以一起考虑。整个句子的意思是:在较陡峭的坡面上,雪不会大量堆积。在较为平坦的坡面,雪不会轻易滑动。

7.B 见注释6.

8.B 理解了句子的意思就不难判断选项:雪在静止状态下,角度在35° ~45°之间,最可能发生人为触发的雪崩。between:在……之间。

9.C 这个句子说明的是什么样的山坡最易发生雪崩,即A slope that is flat enough to hold snow but steep enough to ski.flat在此作“平坦”解,与后面的steep形成反义。

10.A 句中的that is表明,后半部分是对前半部分的进一步说明。所以,这里的选择要根据下文的意思判断。use是最佳选择,整个句子的意思是:山坡被滑雪者使用得越多,雪崩就越有可能发生。

11.D 尽管选项A、B和D都能和continuous搭配,从全段的内容判断,只有process是最佳选择,因为该段描写的是如何防备雪崩以及如何做好安全措施等一系列问题。

12.A 选项A、B、C都可以与weather搭配,但是根据上下文,只有A最为符合文章的内容。

13.B 选项A不符合句子的意思;C不能和risk搭配;D也不符合句子的意思,因为不可能完全消除雪崩的隐患。

14.C 该句主句使用的是被动语态,第二个动词是pay attention to的被动形式。选项A、B、D均不符合句子的意思。

15.A 该句是作者给出的一系列忠告之一,即认真观察地形,注意明显的雪崩路径:没有植物或植物被毁坏的地方。选项B、C、D均不符合句意。

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